This review presents a perspective of in situ genetic technology, including a summary of the methods, principles, endpoints, and applications. The class of in situ genetic techniques has been used for direct measurement of gene functions in specific cell population without nucleic acid isolation.
The newest member to the franchise of in situ genetic technology is Circulogene’s direct-on-specimen enrichment methodology specifically for cell-free DNA liquid biopsy, focusing on pre-analytical sample preparation step.
The Evolution of In Situ Genetic Technology published in The Journal of Oncology Research
Andrew Ford, Charmaine Brown, Elizabeth Caver, Chen-Hsiung Yeh
Circulogene Theranostics, Birmingham, USA
In situ genetic technology was historically developed and mainly focused on detection purpose, allowing specific nucleic acid sequences to be visualized in morphologically preserved tissue sections. With the synergy of genetics and immunohistochemistry, in situ detection can correlate microscopic topological information with gene activity at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels in specific tissues. Furthermore, its resolution allows spatial distribution of nucleic acid products to be revealed in a heterogeneous cell population. The newest member to the franchise of in situ genetic technology is a direct-on-specimen enrichment methodology specifically for cell-free DNA liquid biopsy. Contrary to in situ detection, this in-well in situ innovation tackles the very first sample preparation step to reduce material loss, thereby improving overall sensitivity. Genomic nucleic acids purified from specimens have been proven to be time consuming and suffered from damages and losses; the evolution of in situ genetic technology offers a powerful tool for precision functional genomics, enabling cross-check between in vitro and in vivo findings. It further opens the door to ultimate genetic engineering in situ.
Key words: Cell-free DNA, direct-on-specimen enrichment, in situ, liquid biopsy